Science, technology, engineering and math – the fields collectively known as STEM – are all the rage these days. In an economy that is still struggling to regain its footing, boosting STEM is seen by many as a path to jobs.
Except … what if it isn’t?
As STEM has become an education buzzword in recent years, a steady stream of research has emerged that challenges the notion of STEM as an economic elixir. In some STEM careers, the employment picture is downright lousy.
“Record unemployment among chemists in 2011,” screamed the March headline in Science magazine’s Careers Blog. A headline from June: “What we need is more jobs for scientists.”
Unemployment in STEM fields is still well below the general population and slightly below college graduates in general. That “record” unemployment for chemists, for example, was 4.6 percent, compared with overall U.S. unemployment at that time of 8.8 percent.
Nevertheless, the surplus of workers in some STEM areas (resulting in flat wages, and STEM grads forced to take jobs in non-STEM fields) directly contradicts the widely held view that the United States suffers from a critical shortage of qualified STEM graduates.
The truth, many experts say, is more complicated.
“In a general sense, science and innovation do create jobs and drive growth,” said Elizabeth Popp Berman, an assistant professor of sociology at the University of Albany. Her book, “Creating the Market University,” examines the history of university research and its economic impact. “As a nation, having lots of scientists and people inventing stuff is good for us.”
But that doesn’t mean all STEM graduates have a guaranteed job, Berman stressed. The STEM employment picture, Berman said, is “very mixed” and largely dependent upon a student’s particular major. Petroleum engineering majors are doing very well these days; biologists and chemists are not.
Some studies, meanwhile, have challenged the notion of a STEM worker shortage – instead finding that the United States is producing vastly more STEM graduates than there are jobs awaiting them. As science organizations and corporations continue to sound the STEM shortage alarm, critics charge that these groups are motivated by self-interest. Tech companies, for example, have claimed a shortage of trained workers even as they laid off thousands of U.S. employees, and moved those jobs to low-wage developing countries.
“It’s a way for them to sort of excuse why they’re shifting so much work offshore,” said Rochester Institute of Technology professor Ron Hira, who has testified before Congress on the need to tighten the legal loopholes that allow such maneuvers.
In Florida, Gov. Rick Scott’s Blue Ribbon Task Force on State Higher Education Reform released a report recommending slightly discounted tuition for students pursuing certain majors – primarily STEM. Though Scott has not yet formally embraced the proposal (his office says he’s reviewing it), the idea has sparked a backlash from humanities professors who feel their departments are being marginalized.
A group of frustrated University of Florida history professors recently launched a Change.org petition against the two-tiered pricing idea. The petition, which has gathered more than 1,800 signatures, predicts the state’s focus on steering students into “strategic areas of emphasis” will wreak havoc on English, history and psychology departments, among others.
The new STEM tuition proposal, if implemented, would run counter to a national trend of universities charging more for STEM courses, not less. Because of lab facilities and small class sizes, STEM courses are among the most expensive for colleges to teach. As it stands now, STEM majors are already subsidized by students in other subjects.
But if the STEM discount tuition went into effect, there’s a chance the sheer difficulty of STEM majors would limit its impact. Retention of STEM students has long been a national problem, as students sometimes grow frustrated with a particularly challenging course and switch majors.
Though FIU has about 7,500 undergraduate students majoring in STEM fields, Provost Douglas Wartzok said he is following a “very balanced approach.” STEM degrees are encouraged, but so are other academic pursuits.
In an email, Wartzok wrote that a broad liberal arts education prepares students for a lifetime of occupations by developing “critical thinking, quantitative reasoning, and effective oral and written communication.”
“Most of the jobs our students are taking upon graduation didn’t exist when they started high school,” he wrote. “Hence if we focus them on the career needs of today without giving them a strong liberal arts foundation, they will be trained for jobs that won’t exist when they graduate.”