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Wrinkles may have purpose

Nerve-controlled reaction may have developed to serve as ‘treads’ under water

ScienceNOWJanuary 20, 2013 

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MIAMI - OCTOBER 17: Miami VA Medical Center hospital registered nurse, Rafael Sepulveda, washes his hands in the sink while attending to patients in the Emergency room October 17, 2007 in Miami, Florida. The hospital has strict policies in place to ensure that the staff uses procedures in the fight against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, commonly referred to as MRSA. The staph bacterium is resistant to most common antibiotics and has been responsible for more than nearly 19,000 deaths each year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Photo by Joe Raedle/Getty Images)

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A long soak in the tub can wreak havoc on your fingertips, transforming your smooth digits into wrinkly eyesores. But this rumply skin may actually serve a purpose, according to a new study. It helps us get a stronger grip on slippery objects, especially those underwater.

Scientists long thought that wrinkly fingers were caused by osmosis-swelling of the outer layer of the skin as water seeped into cells. But experiments conducted in the past few years – as well as observations that water-induced wrinkles don’t form on the tips of previously severed but subsequently reattached fingers – suggest that the wrinkles are instead produced by nerves that automatically trigger constriction of the blood vessels beneath the skin, reducing the volume of the tissues there.

Having something under the direct control of a nerve, even an involuntary one, suggests it serves an evolutionary purpose. But that begged the question of what function finger wrinkles have. In 2011, a team of neuroscientists proposed that the folds improved our grip on wet or submerged objects, just as the treads on tires help improve traction. “That seemed like a clever hypothesis that would be easy to test,” says Tom Smulders, an evolutionary biologist at Newcastle University in the United Kingdom.

So, he and his colleagues designed an experiment where volunteers picked up 45 submerged objects such as glass marbles and lead fishing weights from a bin one at a time with their right hand, passed them through a postage stamp-sized hole in a barrier to their left hand, and then dropped them through another hole into a box. When test subjects had wrinkly fingertips – induced by soaking their hands in water for 30 minutes – they completed the task about 12 percent faster than they had when their fingers hadn’t been soaked, the team reports in Biology Letters.

The team’s results are “very interesting,” says Xi Chen, a biomechanical engineer at Columbia University who has analyzed how the skin on fingertips buckles when vasoconstriction causes underlying tissues to shrink. “They show that the wrinkles have a biological function.”

Yet research hasn’t pined down precisely how the wrinkling enhances grip performance. Besides channeling water away from the fingertips – and, in essence, preventing small-scale hydroplaning of skin across slick objects – it’s possible that long-term exposure to water temporarily robs the skin of body oils, thereby boosting the skin’s friction and enhancing grip.

Another possibility, Chen says, is that wrinkled skin spreads to provide a larger contact area when fingers are touching an object.

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