Make vegetables the star of winter stews

New York TimesMarch 11, 2014 

There is an extreme version of just about every stew you can name – beef stew, Irish stew, curry, cassoulet, bouillabaisse – in which vegetables are used, if at all, as “aromatics.” You may start by sweating a little bit of onion, carrot, celery, maybe garlic, with a bay leaf and a thyme sprig, and then you proceed to brown your main ingredient, usually chunks of meat, and add some liquid.

It’s difficult to believe that this tradition goes back much before the ’50s, because so few people had access to the 2 pounds or more of meat that it takes to make a stew containing little else. From Henry IV to Herbert Hoover, the promise was made that every Sunday, there would be a chicken “in every pot.” No one ever said “a half-pound of meat per person per day,” which is about what we eat.

Politics and even nutritional arguments aside, a beef stew with a few token peas and carrots is not exactly a paradigm of complex flavors, nor does it have the tiniest hint of freshness. There’s more complexity and interest in a stew of vegetables, with or without a little meat, than there is in the typical American version of “beef stew.”

The whole thing needs to be rethought, and those feelings are particularly strong in the midst of stew season. I set about to do that a few years ago; the first recipe along those lines that I remember publishing, and one that remains one of my favorites, is “Cassoulet With Lots of Vegetables.”

It is exactly what it sounds like, a dish in which vegetables (in this case, beans) are emphasized over your duck confit, your stewed lamb, your sausage and so on. It doesn’t mean those things can’t be included, only that they become special treats to be fished out, rather than the main feature. Think of a vegetable stir-fry with pork, as opposed to a pork stir-fry with token vegetables.

You can apply this kind of thinking to almost any stew or braised dish you like. (In theory, a stew has more liquid than a braise, but in practice, you can use the words interchangeably.) The benefits are myriad, and they start with respecting tradition. Choucroute garnie, for example, means essentially “garnished sauerkraut,” or, really, “sauerkraut with stuff on it.” It doesn’t mean 3 pounds of meat with some sauerkraut as garnish.

If you apply the more-vegetables principle to stews, you'll be eating less meat, which is generally a good thing, and you'll probably be saving money. Even more important, I think, you'll be lightening and brightening dishes that are otherwise fairly dull standards.

It may take some getting used to. For one thing, you may think you need “protein,” which we’ve been convinced is synonymous with animal products but isn’t, to feel satisfied. But satiation comes from many factors, including fat and, not surprisingly, quantity, and I’m not proposing versions of dishes that are either low fat or dainty.

In my gingery chicken stew, for example, I use one chicken thigh per person. This may seem downright semivegetarian for a meat dish (although that is a bit of the idea), but you still get chicken to eat. And there’s a variety of flavors, which of course you can incorporate into a meat-heavy dish as well. But the bonus is bright, creamy winter squash and a big hit of daikon radish, both of which are not only unexpected but also substantial.

Fish stews tend to be generally lighter and more interesting than those with meat, but there’s room for more vegetables as well. The one here, which features chickpeas, spinach and a puttanesca-esque seasoning combination, turns proportions on their heads. There is enough shrimp and squid so that you know you’re eating a fish stew, but also enough variety so there’s a sense that this is something different.

The paradoxical thing is that even many vegetable stews could have more vegetables, and this ribollita achieves that by adding a small boatload of kale to what is typically beans, tomatoes and a little bit of green. It’s not vegetarian in principle – if you had a piece of prosciutto, it would go a long way – but it’s fully loaded with vegetables. That’s the difference.

Ribollita

5 tablespoons olive oil, divided

1 small onion, chopped

1 carrot, chopped

1 celery stalk, chopped

1 tablespoon minced garlic

Salt and ground black pepper, to taste

2 cups cooked or canned cannellini beans

1 15-ounce can whole peeled tomatoes

4 cups vegetable stock or water

1 fresh rosemary sprig

1 fresh thyme sprig

1 pound chopped kale or escarole

4 large, thick slices whole-grain bread, toasted

1 small red onion, thinly sliced

1/2 cup freshly grated Parmesan

PUT 2 tablespoons of the oil in a large pot over medium heat. When it’s hot, add onion, carrot, celery and garlic; sprinkle with salt and pepper and cook, stirring occasionally, until vegetables are soft, 5 to 10 minutes.

HEAT oven to 500 degrees. Drain beans; if they’re canned, rinse them as well. Add them to the pot along with tomatoes and their juices and stock, rosemary and thyme. Bring to a boil, then reduce heat so the soup bubbles steadily; cover and cook, stirring once or twice to break up the tomatoes, until the flavors meld, 15 to 20 minutes.

FISH out and discard rosemary and thyme stems, if you like, and stir in kale. Taste and adjust seasoning. Lay bread slices on top of the stew so they cover the top and overlap as little as possible. Scatter red onion slices over the top, drizzle with the remaining 3 tablespoons oil and sprinkle with Parmesan.

PUT pot in the oven and bake until bread, onions and cheese are browned and crisp, 10 to 15 minutes. (If your pot fits under the broiler, you can also brown the top there.) Divide soup and bread among 4 bowls and serve.

Yield: 4 servings

Provençal Fish Stew

1 cup cooked or canned chickpeas

4 tablespoons olive oil, divided

1 cup fresh breadcrumbs

Salt and ground black pepper

1 tablespoon minced garlic

1/4 cup Niçoise or oil-cured olives, pitted and chopped

1 tablespoon capers, chopped

2 or 3 anchovy fillets, finely chopped

2 tablespoons tomato paste

1 pound spinach

2 cups fish or vegetable stock, or water

Pinch red chili flakes (optional)

8 ounces squid, roughly chopped

8 ounces shrimp, roughly chopped

DRAIN chickpeas. If you used dried, reserve cooking liquid; if they are canned, discard liquid and rinse chickpeas. Put 2 tablespoons oil in a large skillet over medium heat. When it’s hot, add breadcrumbs, sprinkle with salt and pepper and cook, stirring frequently, until they’re crisp and toasted, 3 to 5 minutes. Remove from pan and place in a bowl. Set aside.

ADD remaining 2 tablespoons oil to the skillet; increase heat to medium-high. When oil is hot, add garlic, olives, capers and anchovies. Cook, stirring occasionally, until fragrant, a minute or two. Add tomato paste and cook, stirring occasionally, until it darkens slightly, 2 to 3 minutes.

START adding spinach a handful at a time; keep stirring until all the spinach fits in the pan and starts to release its water; sprinkle with a little more pepper, then add stock, chickpeas and red chili flakes if you’re using them. Adjust heat so the mixture bubbles gently but steadily, then stir in squid and shrimp. Cook until the seafood is just cooked through, 2 to 3 minutes.

TASTE and adjust the seasoning. Divide among bowls, sprinkle with breadcrumbs and serve.

Yield: 4 servings

Gingery Chicken Stew

2 tablespoons olive oil

1 1/2 pounds (4 whole bone-in) chicken thighs

1/2 teaspoon salt

1/2 teaspoon ground black pepper

1 large onion, chopped

2 cups chopped daikon radish

1/4 cup minced ginger

2 cups vegetable or chicken stock, or water, more as needed

1/4 cup soy sauce

2 tablespoons lime juice

3 pieces star anise

1 1/2 pounds any winter squash, cut into 1-inch chunks

PUT oil in a large pot over medium-high heat. When it’s hot, add chicken, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and cook, turning the pieces as they release easily from the pan, until they’re well-browned on both sides, 8 to 12 minutes. Remove chicken from the pot.

ADD onion, daikon and ginger to the pot and cook until they begin to soften, 3 to 5 minutes. Add stock, soy sauce, lime juice and star anise and bring to a boil, stirring to scrape up any brown bits from the bottom of the pot. Return chicken and adjust heat so the mixture bubbles gently but steadily.

COOK chicken, covered, until very tender, about 30 minutes. Stir in squash. Simmer, stirring occasionally and adding enough stock to keep it from sticking, until squash is tender but not mushy, 10 to 15 minutes. If you like, remove chicken thighs, cut the meat from the bones and return it to the pot. Fish out and discard star anise. Adjust seasonings to taste and serve.

Yield: 4 servings

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