1. Phonemic awareness: Words consist of individual sounds and can be pulled apart into sounds that can be blended and manipulated.
2. Phonics: Decoding words by breaking down individual sounds of letters and combinations of letters.
3. Fluency: Grade-appropriate oral reading with appropriate speed, accuracy and expression.
4. Vocabulary: Knowledge of word meanings for effective communication.
5. Comprehension: How to read both narrative and expository writing. How to understand and remember what is read. How to relate personal knowledge or experiences to the text. How to communicate with others about what's been read.
N.C. DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION