After a shooter killed 17 people at a Florida high school, many have expressed frustration at the political hand-wringing over gun control and calls for prayer.
As a parent, I understand the desire for practical responses to school shootings. I believe the government should do more to prevent such incidents. But the gun control debate has proven so divisive and ineffective that I am weary of waiting for politicians to act.
I study the kind of aggressive childhood behavior that often predates school shootings. That research suggests what communities and families can start doing today to better protect children. Here are 10 actions we can all take.
What schools can do
1. Teach social and emotional skills.
Children learn social skills from everyday interactions with each other. Playtime teaches young people how to control their emotions, recognize others’ feelings and to negotiate.
Social and emotional skills can – and should – be taught in school as a way to prevent student violence. Students with more fluent social skills connect better with others and may be more able to recognize troubled peers who need help.
2. Hire more counselors and school resource officers.
Many schools have few or no trained school psychologists, social workers or adjustment counselors on staff. These mental health professionals are society’s first line of defense against troubled students – especially with the current increase in adolescent depression and anxiety.
School resource officers – trained police officers who work with children – are also helpful for students. Well-trained school resource officers can connect with kids who have few other relationships.
3. Use technology to identify troubled students.
Technology may challenge kids’ social development, but it can also be harnessed for good. Anonymous reporting systems – perhaps text-message based – can make it easier for parents and students to alert law enforcement and school counselors to kids who seem disconnected or disturbed. That enables early intervention.
What communities can do
4. Doctors should conduct standard mental health screenings.
Extreme violence is almost always preceded by certain behavioral problems. These typically include a propensity toward aggression, a marked lack of social connectedness, indications of serious mental illness and a fascination with violence and guns. Doctors could detect these problems early on with a standardized screening at health checkups.
5. Enlist social media companies in the effort to detect threats.
Most young people today use social media to express their feelings and aspirations. In the case of school shooters, these posts are often violent. Evidence strongly indicates that repeated expressions of this nature can be a sign of trouble. I would like to see companies like Instagram, Twitter and Snapchat create algorithms that identify repeated online threats and automatically alert local law enforcement.
What parents can do
6. Think critically about your child’s social media use.
From virtual war games to cruel trolls, the Internet is full of violence. The relationship between violent content and aggression hasn’t been consistent in research: Some studies see no relationship at all, while others find some correlation between violent video games and violent behavior.
This mixed evidence suggests that online content affects children differently, so parents must assess how well their child handles it. If your child is drawn to violent games and tends to be aggressive or troubled, discuss the situation with your pediatrician or school counselor.
7. Consider what your child is missing out on.
Is your child sleeping properly? Do your kids socialize with other young people? These two behaviors are linked to mental health in children, and excessive screen time can reduce or diminish the quality of both. Make sure digital devices aren’t disrupting your kids’ sleep, and schedule play dates if your kids don’t make plans on their own.
8. Assess your child’s relationships.
Like adults, children need confidants to feel invested in and connected with their community. The trusted person can be parent, a family member or a friend – just make sure someone’s playing that role. For children who struggle to make friends and build relationships, there are programs that can help them learn how.
9. Fret productively about screen time.
Research shows that excessive screen time can damage kids’ brains. That’s alarming in part because parents can’t realistically keep kids entirely off devices.
So rather than just fret over screen time, focus instead on how children can benefit from a variety of activities. Evidence shows that children who experience different pursuits over the course of their day – from sports and music to an after-school job – are happier and healthier.
10. Talk with your child.
Children, especially teenagers, don’t always want to talk about how life is going. Ask anyway. My research shows that simply asking children about their friends, their technology use and their day is an important way to show you care. Even if they don’t respond, your interest demonstrates that you’re there for them.
Try this one now. Ask your children what they’re thinking about the shooting in Florida and how they like their friends and school. Then listen.
Englander is professor of psychology and the Director of the Massachusetts Aggression Reduction Center at Bridgewater State University.